白酒风味轮研究和感官系列标准制定

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随着白酒消费群体的“年轻化”和“国际化”趋势发展,传统感官鉴评用语和表达方法在引导消费者上的局限性日益突出。迫切需要开展新的消费者认知习惯与偏好研究,通过标准引导作用促进传统白酒感官鉴评用语和表达方法发展,推动消费者对白酒与白酒感官认识的形成。2009年起,中国食品发酵工业研究院全国食品发酵标准化中心牵头全成立感官标准起草工作组,开展白酒感官系列标准研究和制定工作;2017年,三项白酒感官国家标准颁布执行。

1、《白酒感官品评术语》(GB/T 33405-2016):在感官认知规范及表达语言研究方面,通过对国际酒类风味轮术语制定过程论证,搜集整理了一千余条专业品酒师评酒用语;研究分析了消费者对白酒的描述用语和认知习惯,筛选获得“酱香、粮香、焦香、酸香、甜香、果香、花香、米香、油脂味、生青味”等特征描述术语。整理了原料香、发酵香、陈酿香三大类27个典型香气特征,柔和度、丰满度、谐调度、纯净度、持久度等五大口感维度及多种口味特征,研究形成“中国白酒风味轮”术语的基本框架及主要内容,以促进传统白酒感官品评用语的规范化及标准化。

2、《白酒感官品评导则》(GB/T 33404-2016):在感官评价方式上,通过对国内外食品感官技术标准跟踪研究,建立了白酒定量描述评价方法,绘制了10种香型23种白酒的风味剖面;采用年轻人群偏好性分析方法进行年轻消费者偏好趋势研究,完成白酒传统企业评价标准与年轻人群的多元化偏好特性的比较评价,深化了白酒感官客观性评价标准化技术思想。规范白酒品评环境、人员、规程、方法等技术条件与手段,促进白酒感官品评技术的规范化以及产品认知描述方式的多元化。

3、《白酒风味物质测定指南测定指南》(GB/T 33406-2016):在白酒风味物质的感官特性研究方法方面,开展了“169计划”白酒风味物质阈值测定方法学论证研究,分析比较了国内外多种阈值评价和计算方法。规定了样品准备、评价过程、统计分析等规范,为业界有效开展白酒感官特征贡献风味物质、口味偏好形成机理系统研究提供了标准化的技术方法。

从消费者理性认知方面,推动消费者对白酒及白酒文化的科学认知,促进白酒品评文化的不断发展与传播。从企业市场消费文化培育方面,白酒感官品评标准化推动了业界与消费者市场充分沟通与交流,并为客观分析与有效评价消费者对白酒品质特性的认知和诉求提供了科学手段。在2015年(贵阳)比利时布鲁塞尔国际烈性酒大赛上,“白酒风味轮”及评价方法被用于向国际评酒专家介绍中国白酒的感官风味特点,验证了白酒消费体验文化以市场为导向评价理念形成的现实意义,是推动白酒国际化和消费认知的有益实践。白酒感官技术标准化研究还将继续在消费认知差异的形成机理、白酒感官标准与文化宣传、国外人群对白酒感官认知特点等方面深入开展研究。

Consumer cognition is the expression of the mind, which is formed by the external environment stimulation. Its impact on consumer behavior is reflected in the formation of consumer products to the special love, guide consumers to buy and choose the rational. Along with the development of the "younger" and "internationalization" of liquor consumption groups, the limitation of traditional sensory evaluation and expression methods are becoming more and more prominent. It is urgent to develop new consumer cognitive habits and preferences, and to promote the development of sensory evaluation and expression of traditional Chinese liquor through the standard guidance, and promote the formation of sensory knowledge of liquor and liquor.

Since 2009, National Technical Committee 358 on Chinese spirit of Standardization Administration of China (TC358) set up the standard of sensory standards drafting group, to carry out the work of the sense of the spirit of a series of standard research and development. In September 2017, three Baijiu sensory national standards were finished and implemented.

1. In specification of sensory cognitive, by study expression terms of the wine, beer, whisky .etc, flavor-wheel liquor, collected more than a thousand professional sommelier wine tasting terminology, analysis of the consumers of liquor description language and cognitive habits, it screened out "Jiang(sauced), Grain, Burnt, Sour, Sweet, Fruit, Flowery, Rice, Oil and Green.etc" as description of the features. Basis on these research, the "Terminology of Baijiu sensory evaluation" standard was finished. It formulated  three categories(raw materials, fermented aroma and aging-aroma) of 27 typical odor characteristics, “five taste dimensions (softness, fullness and harmonic scheduling, purity, durable degree) and a variety of flavor type. The research construct the framework and main content of "Chinese liquor(baijiu) flavor wheel" basic terms, to promote standardization of the traditional liquor sensory evaluation language.

2. In the aspect of sensory evaluation methods, by follow-up study to the international food sensory technology standard, Baijiu quantitative evaluation method was established, rendering the 10 kinds of flavor 23 kinds of liquor flavor profile; it also analysis the young consumer preference trends, compare on the diversified of tasters in enterprise evaluation with young people, promote the standard technology of objectivity sensory evaluation. Therefore, study and formulate “the guidelines of Baijiu sensory evaluation” standards, norms liquor evaluation environment, personnel, procedures, methods conditions and technical means, promote liquor sensory evaluation technology standardization and product cognitive description of diversification.

3. In the aspect of flavor substances, the determination of flavor substances threshold methods in the "169 plan" liquor were carried out. Several evaluation and calculation methods were analyzed and compared. The standard of “Guidelines for threshold determination of Baijiu flavor substances” was set up. It provides for the sample preparation, evaluation process, statistical analysis, and so on. In order to provide a standard method for the research on the formation mechanism of the sensory and characteristics of liquor, this is effective in the industry.

Its significance lies in, from consumers to rational cognition, promote consumer of wine and liquor culture of cognitive science, and promote liquor tasting culture of continuous development and dissemination. From the enterprise market consumer culture cultivation, liquor sensory evaluation criteria of promoted the industry and consumer market full communication and exchanges, and objective analysis and effective consumer evaluation on liquor quality characteristics of cognition and claim provides scientific means. In Spirits Selection by Concours Mondial de Bruxelles (2015), the Baijiu flavor were introduced to the international judges by the way of "Baijiu flavor wheel" terminology and evaluation method standard. It also promote the formation of consumer oriented evaluation market concept, which is a useful practice for Baijiu internationalization and consumer cognition. Baijiu sensory technical standards has a broad application prospects in the industry, needs further application and development.

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